District Heating: Sistem Penghangat Alami dari Panas Bumi

Penghangat panas bumi
Penghangat panas bumi
  • District Heating memanfaatkan fluida panas bumi bersuhu hangat guna memanaskan rumah atau bahkan gedung tinggi
  • Sistem pemanas district heating ini sudah di terapkan sejak abad ke-14
  • Sistem district heating mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan, terutama di wilayah Eropa

Apa itu District Heating?

ilustrasi District Heating system. Sumber: geodh.eu

District heating adalah suatu sistem di mana kawasan atau distrik tertentu menggunakan panas bumi sebagai penghangat bangunan-bangunan di area tersebut. Cara kerja dari district heating tersebut melibatkan beberapa proses:

1. Pemanasan distrik dimulai dengan mengambil panas dari sumber-sumber panas bumi yang terdapat di dalam tanah, seperti fluida panas bumi, uap dari fluida panas bumi, atau reservoir air panas bumi yang dapat dijangkau.

2. Panas yang diambil dari sumber panas bumi tersebut kemudian digunakan untuk memanaskan fluida dalam heat changer. Proses penukaran panas ini meningkatkan suhu fluida pemanas.

3. Fluida pemanas, yang telah dipanaskan oleh panas bumi, dipompa melalui sistem perpipaan yang luas ke dalam suatu pusat distribusi panas.

4. Uap panas yang dihasilkan didistribusikan ke berbagai bangunan atau rumah di dalam area tersebut melalui jaringan perpipaan yang kompleks. 

5. Setelah uap panas dilepaskan, fluida pemanas yang sudah dingin akan dialirkan kembali ke dalam tanah untuk dipanaskan kembali oleh sumber panas bumi. Siklus ini berlanjut secara terus menerus.

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Sejarah District Heating

Gambaran desa Chaudes-Aigues. Sumber: Les-pays.com

Gordon Bloomquist, seorang ahli energi panas bumi dari Washington State University, mencatat dalam publikasi ilmiahnya berjudul “Geothermal Space Heating” bahwa penggunaan energi panas bumi untuk pemanasan ruangan telah tercatat sejak abad ke-14.

Pada masa itu, penduduk Desa Chaudes-Aigues Cantal di Perancis mengadopsi sistem pemanasan ruangan berbasis energi panas bumi. Mereka membangun jaringan pemanas yang mengambil sumber panas dari bumi dan sistem ini masih beroperasi hingga saat ini. Penduduk desa tersebut mengembangkan sistem distribusi panas bumi dari suatu wilayah ke rumah-rumah di desa.

Aliran air panas yang terus mengalir di desa Chaudes-Aigues. Sumber: Les-pays.com

Dikutip dari laman geothermal-dhc, Selama proses penggalian di desa tersebut para arkeologi menemukan kolam dan bangunan-bangunan termal kuno, menunjukkan penggunaan air panas sudah ada dari zaman kuno.

Desa ini juga terkenal sebagai pusat pengembangan panas bumi yang penting selama abad pertengahan. Penduduk Desa Chaudes-Aigues memanfaatkan sumber mata air panas untuk menciptakan sistem pemanas yang sederhana.

Mereka menggunakan pipa kayu untuk mengalirkan air panas di bawah lantai batuan di beberapa rumah dengan memanfaatkan gaya gravitasi. Seiring berjalannya waktu, sistem pemanas sederhana ini diperluas ke seluruh desa, dan setiap rumah tangga mendapatkan akses terhadap sumber air panas melalui bak penampungan.

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District Heating di Beberapa Negara

Dilansir dari laman iea.org, Sistem district heating mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan, terutama di Eropa. Di wilayah tersebut, district heating telah mendapatkan dukungan kebijakan yang lebih besar sejak tahun 2022 karena kekhawatiran tentang keamanan energi yang dipicu oleh krisis energi. Perhatian global telah tertuju pada perkembangan ini, termasuk dari berbagai belahan dunia. Perkembangan itu diantaranya:

1. Pada bulan April 2023, Uni Eropa mengalokasikan dana sebesar EUR 401 juta untuk proyek district heating berkelanjutan di Ceko.

2. Pada bulan Maret 2023, di Inggris, RUU Keamanan Energi memperkenalkan regulasi baru terkait jaringan panas untuk memfasilitasi pengembangan zona pemanasan. Komite Perubahan Iklim memproyeksikan bahwa sekitar 18% dari kebutuhan panas di Inggris dapat dipenuhi melalui jaringan pemanasan pada tahun 2050.

3. Pada bulan Maret 2023, di Denmark, parlemen menyetujui regulasi yang mendukung pengembangan panas bumi. Langkah ini mencakup pengesahan undang-undang yang akan menyisihkan proyek panas bumi dari regulasi harga yang sudah ada.

4. Beberapa negara di Eropa mengalami peningkatan dalam pembangunan jaringan pemanas baru pada tahun 2022, termasuk Jerman dan Perancis.

5. Di Finlandia, pembangkit listrik tenaga panas bumi pertama di Varisto mulai beroperasi pada tahun 2023, dengan estimasi penyediaan panas sebesar 2600 megawatt-jam per tahun.

6. Kota Vancouver di Kanada sedang melakukan ekspansi pada kapasitas jaringan pemanas distriknya dengan memasang peralatan pemulihan panas limbah sebesar 6,6 megawatt. Ini bertujuan untuk menangkap panas laten dari air limbah menggunakan pompa panas.

7. Pada awal tahun 2023, Tiongkok memulai proyek pertamanya untuk memanfaatkan panas limbah dari pembangkit listrik tenaga nuklir dalam sistem pemanasan distrik.

#ZonaEBT #SebarTerbarukan #EBTHeroes

Editor: Bellinda Putri Hidayat


[1] District Heating

[2] District heating carries geothermal energy into homes, thereby reducing fossil fuel consumption

[3] District Heating Technology

[4] Inspirasi Energi: Panas Bumi (2) Pemanfaatan Geotermal Sebagai Penghangat Ruangan

[5] Chaudes-Aigues: The first documented geothermal district heating system in France

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