Optimalkan Penggunaan Air Sebagai Sumber EBT di Rumah!!

Gambar 1. Ilustrasi Air, photo : pinterest.com
  • Kualitas air yang sehat diantaranya air harus jernih, tidak berwarna, rasanya tawar, dan lain-lain.
  • Menjernihkan air di rumah dengan penyaring seperti batu kerikil, arang, pasir dan ijuk
  • Air dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai PLTA sederhana di rumah sebagai tambahan atau cadangan dari pasokan listrik konvensional.

Energi baru terbarukan (EBT) atau renewable energy adalah sumber energi yang berasal dari alam dan mampu memproduksi tingkat energi lebih tinggi daripada yang dikonsumsi.

Beberapa contoh EBT adalah :

– Energi surya

– Energi bayu

– Energi panas bumi 

– Energi air

– Bioenergi

Baca Juga



Air Sebagai Sumber EBT

Gambar 2. Energi Air, photo : pinterest.com

Energi air merupakan salah satu dari lima sumber energi terbarukan. Air merupakan senyawa yang sangat penting bagi makhluk hidup. Setiap hari makhluk hidup selalu membutuhkan air untuk kehidupan. Air juga merupakan hal utama untuk budidaya pertanian, industri, pembangkit tenaga listrik, dan transportasi.

Tanpa air keberlangsungan makhluk hidup di bumi akan terancam. Semua makhluk hidup sangat memerlukan air untuk bertahan hidup. Sebab, air memiliki fungsi pelarut maupun energi dalam tubuh. Energi air memiliki fungsi penting untuk kehidupan manusia, hewan, dan tumbuhan. Jika disederhanakan manfaatnya bagi makhluk hidup, air menjadi salah satu sumber kehidupan selain dari makanan.

Ketika air sudah tercemar, maka tidak akan dimanfaatkan secara langsung dan akan menimbulkan penyakit. Mengonsumsi air yang sehat akan mampu menjaga kualitas hidup masyarakat dan berakibat pada umur panjang.

Kualitas Air yang Sehat

Gambar 3. Ilustrasi Analisis Kualitas Air, photo : pdamtirtamountala.com

1. Air Harus Jernih 

Air yang jernih/bening memang belum tentu bersih, namun setidaknya bisa dijadikan tanda awal untuk menilai kualitas air tanah. Sebaliknya untuk air tanah yang keruh dapat dipastikan air tersebut tidak bersih.

2. Tidak Berwarna 

Warna air tanah bergantung pada unsur yang terkandung di dalamnya. Jadi jika kondisi air tanah berwarna, maka sudah pasti tidak layak untuk digunakan. Air tanah berwarna kecokelatan, biasanya mengandung lumpur. 

3. Rasanya Tawar

Untuk menguji kualitas air tanah harus dilakukan pengujian secara manual, yakni dengan mencicipi sampel air tanah tersebut. Air tanah yang baik tidak memiliki rasa apa pun. Tawarnya rasa air tanah dikarenakan tidak adanya unsur apa pun di dalamnya. Inilah yang disebut air tanah yang murni.

4. Derajat Keasaman (PH) Netral

Air tanah yang baik haruslah memiliki PH berkisar antara 6.8—7.2 untuk rentang sempit atau 6.5—7.5 untuk rentang yang lebih lebar.  Air tanah yang terlalu asam berbahaya untuk diminum manusia, bahkan hewan peliharaan/ternak. Cara mengukur PH air tanah bisa dengan menggunakan berbagai alat ukur yang tersedia di pasaran.

5. Tidak Mengandung Zat Kimia Berbahaya

Air tanah yang berada di dekat pusat industri biasanya memiliki kualitas yang lebih buruk, karena hasil buangan limbah pabrik dapat saja mencemari air tanah, terlebih air tanah dangkal. Zat yang sering ditemukan adalah Arsen, Timah, Merkuri, senyawa sulfida, amoniak dan lainnya.

6. Tingkat Kesadahan Rendah

Kesadahan adalah ada atau tidaknya kandungan logam berat tertentu dalam air. Untuk mengetahuinya mudah. Yakni saat deterjen untuk cuci baju dimasukkan ke dalam air, namun air itu sukar berbusa. Ini bisa menjadi tanda air tanah tersebut mengandung Kalsium (Ca) dan Magnesium (Mg). Untuk air tanah yang berbau anyir/kurang sedap mungkin mengandung unsur Mangan (Mn) dan Besi (Fe). Air dengan kesadahan tinggi, terutama dengan kandungan Besi tinggi, dapat menyebabkan timbulnya noda kecokelatan pada pakaian sehabis dicuci.

7. Tidak Mengandung Bakteri Berbahaya

Air tanah yang mengandung banyak bakteri dapat menimbulkan berbagai macam penyakit, seperti diare dan penyakit berat seperti typus, hepatitis, dan kolera.

Menjernihkan Air di Rumah Saja

Gambar 4. Bagan Penjernih Air, photo : dpmd.jatimprov.go.id

Bahan dan alat :

  • Air sumur/sungai yang tidak tercemar bahan kimia.
  • Biji Kelor (Moringa oleifera) atau Moringa stenopetala, Hibiscus sabdarifa, asam (Tamarindus indica) dan Cajanus cajan, untuk mengendapkan lumpur dan partikel air sebagai ganti tawas.
  • Batu kerikil, sebagai bahan penyaring dan membantu aerasi oksigen.
  • Pasir, untuk menahan endapan lumpur. Arang, sebagai penyerap partikel yang halus, penyerap bau dan warna yang terdapat di air.
  • Ijuk, untuk menyaring partikel yang lolos dari lapisan sebelumnya dan meratakan air yang mengalir.
  • Drum plastik/gentong/bak semen 200 lt.
  • Gentong besar atau bak penampung dari semen
  • Pompa air Penyangga kayu (bila perlu)
  • Pipa bambu/paralon atau selang plastik
  • Kran air
  • Kasa nyamuk dari plastik
  • Solasi paralon dan lem paralon

Cara Kerja

Mempersiapkan bak penampung air. Buatlah kran pada ketinggian 10 cm dari bagian dasar, untuk masing-masing drum/gentong. Kran disambung saluran paralon 30 cm yang diberi lubang dan dibungkus dengan kasa nyamuk. Saluran paralon tersebut terdapat pada bagian dalam drum/gentong.

Cucilah bahan-bahan penyaring seperti batu kerikil, arang, pasir dan ijuk hingga benar-benar bersih, dikeringkan. Susunlah bahan penyaring mulai dari bagian dasar keatas berturut-turut ijuk (ketebalan 15 cm); pasir (10 cm); batu kerikil (10 cm); ijuk (5 cm); arang (15 cm); pasir (10 cm); kerikil (10 cm); ijuk ( 5 cm); pasir (10 cm); dan batu kerikil (10 cm).

Harus diingat bahwa dalam penyusunannya harus rapat dan merata, jangan sampai ada rongga antar lapisan. Buat penyangga kayu berundak. Ketinggian undak pertama 50 cm dan udak kedua 170 cm (disesuaikan dengan ketinggian drum). Susun kedua drum/gentong secara bertingkat. Drum/gentong pertama diletakkan di undak pertama (untuk penyaring).

Drum/gentong kedua diletakkan di undak kedua (untuk penampung air bersih). Cari dan kumpulkan biji kelor yang sudah tua, ditumbuk sampai menjadi bubuk. Untuk 200 liter air diperlukan 200 gram biji kelor. Masukkan air yang akan dijernihkan dalam bak penampung. Taburkanlah biji kelor halus dan diaduk rata, tunggu hingga mengendap.

Setelah mengendap baru air dialirkan. Alirkan air dari drum/gentong pertama ke gentong kedua. Air yang keluar pertama, mula-mula keruh dan setelah beberapa saat akan jernih. Setelah jernih, baru ditampung ke drum/gentong kedua. Sebelum diminum air harus direbus atau sterilkan dengan SODIS. Setelah beberapa lama (lebih kurang 3 bulan) air yang keluar tidak jernih lagi, berarti filter perlu diganti atau dicuci lagi

Baca Juga



Sobat EBT Heroes juga dapat memanfaatkan air sebagai PLTA sederhana di rumah, Sobat EBT Heroes dapat mengurangi ketergantungan pada sumber energi konvensional dan menjaga keberlanjutan lingkungan. Makin tahu Indonesia

Selain itu, penggunaan PLTA sederhana juga dapat membantu meningkatkan kualitas hidup masyarakat di daerah-daerah terpencil yang tidak memiliki akses terhadap pasokan listrik konvensional. Namun, perlu diingat bahwa PLTA sederhana di rumah memiliki kapasitas yang terbatas dan tidak dapat menghasilkan energi listrik dalam jumlah yang besar. Oleh karena itu, penggunaan PLTA sederhana di rumah sebaiknya digunakan sebagai tambahan atau cadangan dari pasokan listrik konvensional.

#zonaebt #sebarterbarukan #ebtheroes

Editor: Azahra Nabila

Referensi

[1] Apa itu energi baru terbarukan (EBT)?

[2] Cek Kualitas Air di Rumah, Ini Ciri-Ciri Air Sumur yang Sehat!

[3] Mengapa Energi Air Sangat Penting bagi Makhluk Hidup?

[4] Penyaringan Air Sederhana

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